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​​​​​Acronyms and Abbreviations​


A  B  C  D  E​  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z Others​


​​A

​AAF - Average Annual Flow
ABJV - Antah Biawater Joint Venture Sdn. Bhd.
ABM - Australian Bureau of Meteorology
ACD - Admiralty Chart Datum
ACES - Automated Coastal engineering Syatem
ACLs - Alternate Concentration Limits
ACT - Australian Capital Territory
ASMA - Alam Sekitar Malaysia
​ADB - Asian Development Bank
AF - Acre-Feet (or Acre-Foot)
AFY - Acre-Feet per Year
AOGCM - Atmospheric Ocean General Circulation Models
ARI - Average Recurrence Interval
ASEAN - Association of South East Asian Nations
ASMA - Alam Sekitar Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., a privatised environment
ATF - Aviation Turbine Fuel​​

B​​​​​

​B&P - Binnie & Partners
BAU - Business-As-Usual
BCM/yr - Billion Cubic Metres/year
BMP - Best Management Practise
BMRC - Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre
​BOD - (=BOD5) 5 - Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BOD - Biological Oxygen Demand
BP - Blok perancangan
BPK - Blok perancangan kecil​

C​​

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​C&IWU - Commercial & Industrial Water Use
CAPEX - Capital Ependiture
CBA - Benefit-Cost Analysis
CCC - Cnadian Climate Centre
CCCEQ - Canadian Climate Centre Equilibrium Experiment
CCM - Comunity Climate Model
CED - Coastal Engineering Division
CETC - Coastal Engineering Technical Center
CETDEM - Centre for Environment, Technology and Development, Malaysia
CF4 - Perfluoromethane
CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon
CLICOM - Climate Computing Software​
​cm - Centimetre
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand
COP - Conference of Parties of UNFCCC
CORPRI - Corporation/Privatisation Model of Water Sector Reform
CPI - Consumer Price Index
CSA - Corporate Services Agencies
CSIRO - Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
CSIRO - Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
CVI - Coastal Vulnerability Index​
CFCs - Chloroflourocarbons
CH4 - Methane

​​D​​​​

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​DBKL - Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (Kuala Lumpur City Hall)
DEB - Dasar Ekonomi Baru
DEM - Digital Elevation Map
DHI - Danish Hydraulic Institute
DID - Department of Irrigation and Drainage
DNA - Dr Nik & Associates
DO - Dissolved Oxygen (water chemistry)
DOE - Department of Environment
DOS - Department of Statistics
DPN - Dasar Pembangunan Nasional
DRT - Draf Rancangan Tempatan
DTCP - Department of Town and Country Planning
DWL - Design Water Level
DWNP - Department of Wildlife and National Parks
DWU - Domestic Water Use​​

​E​​​

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​EC - European Community
ECBA - Extended Cost-Benefit Analysis
ECMAM3TR - Climate Model Of the Max-Plank Institute
EE&EC - Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation
EFF - Efficiency-oriented
EIA - Environment Impact Assessment
EIA - Penilaian Alam Sekitar
EW - Engineering Works​
​EIRR - Economic Internal Rate of Return
ENSEARCH - Environmental Research and Management Association of Malaysia
ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation
ENSO - El Nino-Southern Oscillation
EPU - Economic Plan Unit
EPU - Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department
EQA - Enviromental Quality Act

​F​​​​

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​FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization
FELCRA - Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilation Authority
FELCRA - Lembaga Penyatuan dan Pemulihan Tanah Persekutuan
FELDA - Federal Land Development Authority
FELDA - Lembaga Kemajuan Tanah Persekutuan
FFA - Flood Frequency Analysis
FFWS - Flood Forecasting and Warning System
​FIRR - Financial Internal Rate of Return
FMM - Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers
FMP - Flood Mitigation Project
FMU - Forest Management Unit
FRIM - Forest Research Institute Malaysia
FRIM - Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
FSL - Full Supply Level
FTDKVPD - Federal Territory Development and Klang Valley Planning Division​

G

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​g - Gramme
GAME - GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment
GCM - Global Climate Model
GCOS - Global Climate Observation System
GCTE - Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
GEF - Global Environmental Facility
GENISIS - Global Environmental and Ecological Simulation of Interactive System
GEWEX - Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
GFDL - Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
Gg - Giga gramme
GHG - Greenhouse Gas
​GIS - Geographical Information System
GIS - Sistem Maklumat Geografi
GISS - Goddard Institute of Space Science
Gj - Gigajoules
GNP - Gross National Product
GSD - Geological Survey Department
GSM - Geological Survey Malaysia
GWh - Gigawatt Hours
GWP - Global Warming Potential
GWP - Global Water Partnership​

H​​​​

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​H2O - Water Vapour
Ha - Hectare
HADCM2 - Hadley Centre Climate Model
HAT - Highest Astronomical Tides
HCFC - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HCFC - Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
​HD - Hydrodynamic
HDPE - High density polyethylene
HFC - hydrofluorocarbon
HP - Hydrological Procedure
HSK - Hutan Simpan Kekal
HV - High Voltage
HYRROM - Rainfall-runoff Modelling​

​I​​​

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​​IADP - Integrated Agricultural Development Project
IBRD - International Bank for Reconstruction & Development
ICT - Teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi / ‘nformation and communication technology’
ICU - Implementation Coordination Unit
ICZM - Integrated Coastal Zone Management
IEEIP - Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project
IGBP - International Geosphere - Biosphere Programme
IGBP - International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
IKA - Indeks kualiti air
IKS - Industri kecil sederhana
IKS - Pembangunan Industri Kecil dan Sederhana
IKU - Indeks kualiti udara
IMP2 - Second Industrial Master Plan
IMR - Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia
IMS –GT - Kerjasama Pertumbuhan Segitiga
IMS-GT - Kerjasama Pertumbuhan Segitiga
INMWQS - Interim National Marine Water Quality Standard
IPC - Integrated Pollution Control
IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change
IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPTA - Institusi Pendidikan Tinggi Awam
IPTS - Institusi Pendidikan Tinggi Swasta
IPTS - Institut Pendidikan Tinggi Swasta
IPU - Indeks Pencemar Udara
IRBM - Integrated River Basin Management
IS92 - IPCC Climate Scenarios 1992
ISIS - Institute of Strategic and International Studies
ISMP - Integrated Shoreline Management Plan
ISQ - Improved Status-Quo
IT - Information technology / Teknologi Maklumat
ITCZ - Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
ITTO - International Tropical Timber and Organisation
IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
IUFRO - International Union Forestry Research Organisation
IWRM - Integrated Water Resources Management​​

J​​

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​JAS - Jabatan Alam Sekitar
JBA - Jabatan Bekalan Air
JBAJ - Jabatan Bekalan Air Johor
JE - Japanese Encephalitis
JICA - Japan International Cooperation Agency
JICA - Japanese International Cooperation Agency
JKR - Jabatan Kerja Raya
JMG - Jabatan Mineral dan Geosain
​JPBD - Jabatan Perancang Bandar Dan Desa
JPBD - Jabatan Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa
JPN - Jawatankuasa Perancang Negeri
JPP - Jabatan Parit Pembetungan
JPS - Jabatan Parit Dan Saliran
JPS - Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran
JPZ - Jurutera Perunding Zaaba Sdn. Bhd
JSEDC - Johor State Economic Development Corporation
JUPEM - Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia​

​​​K

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​KADA - Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority
KDDK - Keluaran Dalam Daerah Kasar
KDDK - Keluaran Dalam Dearah Kasar
KDNK - Keluaran Dalam Negara Kasar
KEJORA - Lembaga Kemajuan Johor Tenggara
kg - Kilogramme
Kg. - Kampung (village)
Kg. - Kampung
KKLW - Kementerian Kemajuan Luar Bandar dan Wilayah
​KLIA - Kuala Lumpur International Airport
km - Kilometre
KPPT - kadar Pertumbuhan Purata Tahunan
KPPT - Kadar Pertumbuhan Purata Tumbuhan
KRBFMP - Klang River Basin Flood Mitigation Project
KRBIFMP - Klang River Basin Integrated Flood Mitigation Project
KRM - Koridor Raya Multimedia
KSAS - Kawalan Sensitif Alam Sekitar
ktoe - Kilo Tonnes of Oil Equivalent
KUKTEM - Kolej Kejuruteraan dan Teknologi Malaysia
KWh - Kilowatt Hours​
km2 - Square kilometre

​​​L

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​l/c/d - Litres/capita/day
l/ha/day - Litres/hectare/day
l/s/km2 - Litres/second/square kilometre
LAM - Lembaga Air Melaka
LAP - Lembaga Air Perak
LEI - Lake Evaluation Index
LEO - Littoral Environmental Observation
LGM - Lembaga Getah Malaysia (Malaysia Rubber Board)
​LGM - Lembaga Getah Malaysia
LKIM - Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia
LKPP - Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian Pahang
LKW - Lembaga Kemajuan Wilayah
LLNL - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
LOICZ - Land Ocean Interaction in Coastal Zone
LPG - Penyaluran Gas Asli Cecair
LPPM - Lembaga Penggalak Pelancongan Malaysia
LPT - Lebuh Raya Pantai Timur
LRT - Light Rail Transit
LSD - Land Survey Datum​

​​M​

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m - Meter
m - Metre
m3 - Cubic metre
m3/s - Cubic metres/second
MACE - Micro Computer Applications for Cooperation Agency
MADA - Muda Agricultural Development Authority
MAF - Mean Annual Flood
MAM - Mean Annual Minimum Flow
MARDI - Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute
MC&I - Malaysian Criteria and Indicator
MCCG - Malaysian Climate Change Group
MCL - Maximum Contaminant Level (water quality standards)
MCM/yr - Million Cubic Metre/year
MDKL - Majlis Daerah Kuala Langat
MDP - Majlis Daerah Pekan
MDSC - Murray Darling Basin Commission
MEC - Malaysia Energy Centre
MECCA - Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment
​MECM - Ministry of Energy, Communications and Multimedia,
MEDIS - Malaysia Energy Database and Information System
Mgd - Million Gallons per Day
MHHW - Mean High High Water
MHWS - Mean High Water Spring
MI - Million Litres
MIDA - Malaysian Industrial Development Authority​​
MIS - Management Information System
ML - Megalitre
mld - Megalitres per day
Mld - Million Litres per Day
MLLW - Mean Low Low Water
MMCEG - Malaysian Mining Cooperation Engineering Group
MMS - Malaysian Meteorological Service
MMS - Malaysian Meteorological Services
MOA - Minitry of Agricultural
MOH - Ministry of Health
MOL - Minimum Operating Level
MOSTE - Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment,
MPI - Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology
MPS - Majlis Perbandaran Selayang
MRI - Meteorological Research Institute of Japan
MSC - Multimedia Super Corridor
MSDM - Meteorological Services Department Malaysia
MSL - Maen Sea Level
MSL - Mean Sea Level
MVAS - Manufacturing Value-Added Activities
MW - Megawatt​

​​​N

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​N2O - Nitrous Oxide
N2O - Nitrus Oxide
NAHRIM - National Hydraulic Research Institute Malaysia
NAP - New Agricultural Policy
NC - National Communication
NCAR - National Centerfor Atmospheric Research
NCECC - National Coastal Erosion Control Council
NCES - National Coastal Erosion Study
NCSRD - National Council of Scientific Research & Development
NDC - Newly Developed Countries
NEAC - National Economic Action Council
NEP - New Economic Policy
​NERP - National Economic Recovery Plan
NGO - Non-Governmental Organisation
NOx - Nitrogen Oxide (Air Quality)
NPFDB - National Population and Family Development Board
NPP - New Population Policy
NPV - Net Present Value
NRW - Non-Revenue Water
NST - Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport
NWRC - National Water Resources Council
NWRD - National Water Resources Department
NWRPDA - National Water Resources Planning and Development Act
NWRS - National Water Resources Study​​

​​O

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​OC - Darjah Celcius
OD - Ordnance Datun (=Mean Sea Level at Port Klang)
OECD - Organisation for Economic Corporation and Development
OPEX - Operating Expenditure
​OPP1 - First Outline Perspective Plan 1971-1990
OPP2 - Second Outline Perpsective Plan 1991-2000
OSU - Oregon State University​

​​​​P

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​PAM - Perbadanan Air Melaka
PBPT - Pihak berkuasa perancang tempatan
PBT - Pihak berkuasa tempatan
PCV - Prescribed Concentration or Value (water quality standards)
PDKL - Pejabat Daerah Kuala Langat
PEKT - Projek Ekonomi Kampung Terbimbing
PET - Potential Evapotranspiration
PETRONAS - Petroleum National
PETRONAS - Petroliam Nasional Berhad (National Oil Corporation)
PFA - Pig Farming Area
PFE - Permanent Forest Estate
PFR - Permanent Forest Reserves
PGK - Pendapatan Garis Panduan
PGU - Peninsular Gas Utilization
pH - Kadar keasidan dan kealkalian
PIW - Paya Indah Wetland
PKED - Pusat Kemajuan Ekonomi Desa
PKM - Perkhidmatan Kajicuaca Malaysia
PKPKR - Program Khas Perumahan Kos Rendah
PM10 - Particulate Matter of size less than 10 microns
​PMEM - Project Management, Evaluation and Monitoring
PMF - Probable Maximum Flood
PMP - Probable Maximum Precipitation
PNSB - Permodalan Negeri Selangor Berhad
PPAM - Persatuan Pencinta Alam Malaysia
ppb - Parts per billion
PPD - Pusat Pertumbuhan Desa
PPI - Producer Price Index
PPK - Pusat Perkidmatan Kecil
ppm - Parts per million
PPP - Purchasing Power Parity
ppt - Parts per trillion
PPTA - Project Preparation Technical Assistance
PRF - Permanent Reserved Forest
PSA - Private Services Agencies
PSK - Program Pengumpulan Semula Kampung
PUB - Public Utilities Board, Singapore
PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride
PWD - Public Works Department​

​​Q

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​​​R

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​RB - Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd
RBIS - River Basin Information System
RBMU - River Basin Management Unit
RCS - Remote Control System
RFN - Rancangan Fizikal Negara
RIC - Reduce Import Logging
RISDA - Rubber Industry Small Holders Development Authority
RM - Malaysian Ringgit
RM - Ringgit Malaysia (Malaysian Ringgit)​
​RMK 7 - Rancangan Malaysia ke 7
RMKe-8 - Rancangan Malaysia Ke-8
ROW - Right of Way
RRJP2 - Rangka Rancangan Jangka panjang ke 2
RRJP3 - Rangka Rancangan Jangka Panjang ke 3
RSKL - Rancangan Struktur Kuala Langat
RSN - Rancangan Struktur Negeri Pahang
RSN - Rancangan struktur negeri
RT - Rancangan tempatan​

​​​S

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​SARCS - Southeast Asian Regional Committee for START
SAWARI - Satu Wilayah Satu Industri
SCENGEN - Software of the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia to generate Climate Scenario
Sdn Bhd - Sendirian Berhad
SEDCs - State Economic Development Corporations
SEPU - State Economic Planning Unit
SFM - Sustainable Forest Management
Sg - Sungai
SIRIM - Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia
SLR - Sea Level Rise
sm - Sentimeter
SMEC - Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation
SMHB - SMHB Sdn. Bhd
SMS - Selective Management System
​SPI - Sustainable Penang Initiative
SSL - Self-Sufficiency Level
SST - Sea Surface Temparature
ST - Sediment Transport
START - Global Change System for Analysis, Research and Training
START - System for Analysis, Research and Training
STP - Sewerage Treatment Plant
SWMA - Selangor Water Management Authority
SWRB - State Water Resources Board
SWRC - State Water Resources Council
SWRD - State Water Resources Department
SWRDC - State Water Resources Development Committee
SWRTC - State Water Resources Technical Committee​

​​T

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​TDS - Total Dissolved Sediment
Tg - Tanjung
THM - Trihalomethane (water chemistry)
TKAN - Total Kjeldhal Ammoniacal Nitrogen
TNB - Tenaga Nasional Berhad
TNRD - Tenaga Nasional Research and Development Sdn. Bhd.
TOC - Total Organic Carbon (water chemistry)
TOF - Time of Forecast
​TOL - Temporary Occupation License
tonnes/ha - Metric ton per Hectare
TOR - Terms of Reference
TP - Total Phosphorus
TRUST - Skim Transformasi Usahawan Sektor Ternakan
TSI - Trophic State Index
TSS - Total Suspended Sediment
TTHMs - Total Trihalomethanes
TTM - Taman Teknologi Malaysia
TWL - Top Water Level​

​​​U

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​UICW - Unit Industrial Water Demand
UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University of
UKMO - United Kingdom Meteorological Office
UM - Universiti Malaya (University of Malaya)
UNCED - United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
​UNFCCC - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UPEN - Unit Perancang Ekonomi Negeri
UPM - Universiti Putra Malaysia
USBR - United State Bureau for Reclamation
USEPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency
USM - Universiti Sains Malaysia (University of Science, Malaysia)​

​​V

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​​​W

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​WCP - World Climate Programme
WEPA - Water Environment Partnership in Asia
WHO - World Health Organisation
WHO - World Health Organization
WMO - World Meteorological Organisation
WOTRO - The Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical
WQ - Water Quality
WQI - Water Quality Index
WTE - Waste to Energy​

​X​​​

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​​​Y

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​​​​​Z

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ZIA - Zon Industri Akuakultur

Others​​

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​1 k Tonne - 1 Gg
1 M Tonne - 103 Gg
1 Tonne - 103 kg
5MP - Fifth Malaysia Plan 1986-1990
​6MP - Sixth Malaysia Plan 1991-1995
7MP - Seventh Malaysia Plan 1996-2000
8MP - Eight Malaysia Plan 2001-2005​